Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL
NASA's most powerful X-ray observatory has successfully completed a month-long series of tests in the extreme heat, cold, and airless conditions it will encounter in space during its five-year mission to shed new light on some of the darkest mysteries of the universe.
The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was put through the rigorous testing as it was alternately heated and cooled in a special vacuum chamber at TRW Space and Electronics Group in Redondo Beach, Calif., NASA's prime contractor for the observatory.
"Successful completion of thermal vacuum testing marks a significant step in readying the observatory for launch aboard the Space Shuttle in January," said Fred Wojtalik, manager of the Observatory Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.
"The observatory is a complex, highly sophisticated, precision instrument," explained Wojtalik. "We are pleased with the outcome of the testing, and are very proud of the tremendous team of NASA and contractor technicians, engineers and scientists that came together and worked hard to meet this challenging task."
Testing began in May after the observatory was raised into the 60-foot thermal vacuum chamber at TRW. Testing was completed on June 20.
During the tests the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility was exposed to 232 degree heat and 195 degree below zero Fahrenheit cold. During four temperature cycles, all elements of the observatory - the spacecraft, telescope, and science instruments - were checked out.
Computer commands directing the observatory to perform certain functions were sent from test consoles at TRW to all Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility components. A team of contractor and NASA engineers and scientists monitored and evaluated the results.
Commands were also sent from, and test data monitored at, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., as part of the test series. The observatory will be managed and controlled from the Operations Control Center after launch.
"As is usually the case, we identified a few issues to be resolved before launch," said Wojtalik. "Overall, however, the observatory performed exceptionally well."
The observatory test team discovered a mechanical problem with one of the primary science instruments, the Imaging Spectrometer. A door protecting the instrument did not function when commanded by test controllers.
"We do these tests to check and double check every aspect of satellite operation that could affect the ultimate success of the science mission," said Craig Staresinich, TRW Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program manager. "Discovering a problem now is a success. Discovering a problem later, after launch, would be a failure."
A team of NASA and contractor engineers are studying the mechanical problem and developing a plan to correct it. The instrument will be sent back to its builder, Lockheed-Martin Astronautics in Denver, Colo., where it will be repaired while the rest of the observatory continues other testing. This should still allow an on-time delivery of the observatory to NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Fla., in August, where it will be readied for launch in January.
With a resolving power 10 times greater than previous X-ray telescopes, the new X-ray observatory will provide scientists with views of previously invisible X-ray sources, including black holes, exploding stars and interstellar gases. The third of NASA's Great Observatories, it will join the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit.
The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility program is managed by the Marshall Center for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. TRW Space & Electronics Group is assembling the observatory and doing verification testing. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Operations Control Center is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Using glass purchased from Schott Glaswerke, Mainz, Germany, the telescope's mirrors were built by Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., Danbury, Conn. The mirrors were coated by Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc., Santa Rosa, Calif., and assembled by Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.
The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Charge-Coupled Device Imaging Spectrometer was developed by Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa., and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge. One diffraction grating was developed by MIT, the other by the Space Research Organization Netherlands, Utrecht, Netherlands, in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute, Garching, Germany. The High Resolution Camera was built by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation of Boulder, Colo., developed the aspect camera and the Science Instrument Module.
Digital images to accompany this release are available: